A History of the Osage People
Publisher: University Alabama Press | ISBN: 0817313192 | edition 2004 | PDF | 632 pages | 6,38 mb
Osage traditional lands are located in mid-continental America encompassed by the present-day states of Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Major waterways through these lands and the defensible terrain of the Ozark range provided the tribe a distinct advantage in prehistoric and early historic times. A warlike people, the Osage long encroached on neighboring tribal lands, especially those of the Caddo to the southwest. Yet good natural boundaries and centuries of success in warfare afforded the tribe little advantage in attempts to forestall Euro-American westward expansion. Three major routes to the West - the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers and the Continental Trail - crossed Osage land, so conflict with the newcomers was inevitable.